My new study (2014-16)
On this page I give an overview of the project [pull down menu: Overview],
A brief description of my current and plans to extend this work. If you are interested in participating in my future plans, please don’t hesitate to contact me [pull down menu: Plans].
There are more details of the project with a summary of findings so far (outputs and you-tube lectures), on this page [pull down menu: Findings]
Ross, A. (1984). Developing political concepts and skills in the primary school. Educational Review, 36 (2), pp 131–139.
An early article, which although dated, offers some analysis if what young people (7-11) can be capable of in the sphere of political learning.
“Young children are capable of holding fairly sophisticated political concepts and of developing political skills, particularly if both are derived from the direct experiences of the child.” (p. 131)
“Children need first to describe and discuss their own personal experiences: the teacher’s role is to encourage everyone that their knowledge is a valid starting point for discussion … not necessarily to introduce new vocabulary to the child, but often to use children’s own expressions to help them clarify ideas. The teacher cannot ‘teach’ concepts by defining them: they are built up slowly by the child accumulating a battery of examples and beginning to note the similarities.” (p. 134)
Ross, A. (1987). Political Education in the primary school. In Clive Harber (Ed.), Political Education in Britain, pp 9-24. Lewes: Falmer.
A wide-ranging survey of the then current literature on political socialisation in this age group, with examples drawn from isolated examples of current practice in the UK.
The chapter “move[s] from the evidence that shows the political understandings that nearly all children show, and the undoubted political competence that some children can achieve, to consider in what curricular guise political education will probably occur in schools." (p 22)
Ross, A. (1988). The Social Subjects. In M. Clarkson (Ed), Emerging Issues in Primary Education, pp 207 – 222. Lewes: Falmer.
This analysis of the social subjects’ place in the curriculum was written in the months before the National Curriculum was announced, and offers an account of the ‘state of play’ at that critical juncture. It analyses the respective roles of the Local Education Authorities, the Schools Council, the Inspectorate and the schools in developing the social subjects – or perhaps the social sciences – as ‘synthesizers’, ‘restructuralists’ and ‘particularists’, particularly in the light of the rapidly changing ethnic diversity of schools at this time.
“The initiative [of the synthesizers] provoked a series of rejoinders, both from those who sought to reassert the primacy of traditional subject divisions, and from those who wanted to redefine the social subjects as a convenient way of developing social skills. As yet, these reconstructionists are ill-coordinated and have not put forward any strongly argued and practical counter-proposals: but there would probably be a fair-sized body of primary teachers who would respond to a call to reintroduce the traditional subjects, taught in a traditional manner.” (p 217)
Others “have defined their curriculum concerns in a manner that links them to the social sciences. This approach has strengthened the social science movement.” (p. 217)
Five years later, and the social subjects had become covert fugitives from the regime of the National Curriculum. This essay was written as part of a Festschriften for Alan Blyth, a pioneer of social studies from 1945 till well after his retirement in 1985. As I note, not only had the ‘social subjects’ disappeared from the then formulations of the National Curriculum, but as had the word ‘society’ itself. A chart in this chapter (pp 139-141) shows how the primary school curriculum had been divided and labelled from 1967 to 1991.
“Most primary teachers have an intuitive, rather than a well-articulated, view of the social in the curriculum. Only a minority have the energy, the analysis, or indeed the courage, to weld a social studies curriculum out of the jigsaw of the National Curriculum’s foundation subject and the whole curriculum’s themes.” (p 153)
“Not only are the social subjects a necessary part of the whole curriculum, they are already available, in a pice-mean form, within the existing skeleton of the national and the whole curriculum. The only way of making them sufficiently explicit, and this achievable, will be to draw the disparate parts together, and offer this as something not only greater than its parts, but also simpler than its parts.” (p. 154)
A review of the curricular changes in the social studies curriculum from the 1960 to the roll-out of the 1988 National Curriculum in England, that argues that it was essential to maintain a social studies dimension. The argument focuses on the primary and middle years of education, examining UK and international trends in the 70s and early 80s, and the attack on social studies from right-wing commentators in Thatcher’s Britain in the late 80s and early 90s.
“The social elements of the curriculum … changed radically with the imposition of the National Curriculum. One view might be that they were … disposed of, [through] ‘benign neglect’, then frozen out of discussion, and finally legislated into oblivion. A counter view might be that they were translated into other disciplines … by interested professionals acting in a subversive manner to colonise the new curriculum. But alternative might be that many of the themes and concerns that were hitherto located within the social parts of the curriculum were subtly reformulated and reintroduced … in the cross-curricular themes.” (p. 77)
An analysis of the UK Government’s assertion that the ‘Whole Curriculum’ was broader and greater than the National Curriculum, and that cross-curricular themes would provide this. The documentation of these themes are analysed, and it is suggested that they largely were structured to develop a sense of individual responsibility among young people, rather than offer any broader social perspectives: the individual is made the author of their own misfortune. This is coupled to curriculum initiatives to ‘invent’ a national heritage.
“These elements do not simply offer a framework that mirrors the social experiences of our communities. They reorder the curriculum, so that children will learn more about their own individual obligations and responsibilities than about the social organizations that offer them rights. …The National Curriculum, and the Whole Curriculum that surrounds it, is an attempt to invent traditions that deny community, welfare and social action.” (p. 98)
This was the third book in the CiCe series European Issues in Children’s Identity and Citizenship (8 volumes, between 2002 and 2008: see also A European Education, under Citizenship Education, below). In the introduction we draw attention to the construct of young peoples’ political identity, as taking place from an early age, and the way that this will be set among a range of identities.
“The sequence of construction [of different identities] is contingent on the social and political circumstances in which the individual grows up. …. A political identity … will include, inter alia, aspects of identity theta relate to particular geographical localities (such as municipalities, nations and regions), as well as aspects that relate to membership of a particular social group that may act politically (a socio-economic class, a linguistic group, or a particular ethnicity. These will frequently overlap.”( p 2)
We give an example of a bilingual Turkish/German origin 13 year old girl having many reference groups for her identities: “each of these reference groups brings with it different sets of duties and obligations, and different definitions of whom she will include in the reference group, and who falls outside it. She will expect different rights from the various groups and from the individuals in those groups, and she will expect different degrees of participation in decision-making processes in each setting. She will inevitably find some of these demands are sometimes incompatible, and will have to give priority, in a particular setting, to acting one way or another: she will live contingently.” pp 4-5)
This chapter explores the development o political education in the UK curriculum, and then the citizenship education in the UK and Europe in the 1997-2003 period. This is set in a discussion about the relative merits of a concept-bases curriculum and an issues-based curriculum; a “delicate balance” (p. 29) is suggested.
“a variety of elements [must be] present: experiences, issues, concepts and structures and processes. … All of these are necessary components – not a single one can be left out- and the sequence is critical” (p 30)
“if we are to get away from safe teaching about structures and processes, about the neutral and the bland, then we need to ensure teachers re equipped with a wide conceptual understanding, with a knowledge of the issues that might illustrate these, and with the skills to manage covering the issues of participatory democracy through handling classroom political debate.” (pp 32-33)
Findings from a survey of 11-17 year olds in in Poland, Spain, Turkey and the UK that sought to explore the reality of the supposed ‘democratic deficit’ of young people. We suggest that young people behave very similarly to adults in how they define their political activities and expectations, and discuss possible educational responses to the intentions they describe.
“There is considerable political interest among young people in these four countries – though not necessarily political interest in the conventional sense of traditional party political activity.” (p. 56)
“Males seemed somewhat more inclined than females to participate in ‘conventional [political] activities’, and females to be involved in less conventional activities. Young people have always been more involved in direct, issues-focused political action that their elders.” (p.57)
2010 2011 2012
In total, I visited 49 different location, talking with 974 young people from 97 different schools and colleges, in 159 groups.
My findings were reported variously at a number of conference and lectures, and in some journal articles, and in full in a book: Understanding the Construction of New Young Europeans: Kaleidoscopic Identities (Routledge, 2015). These are all listed, with some extracts on Political Identities: details.
In 2014 I decided to extend the study to include the counties of western Europe, in particular those pre-2004 EU members (and also the associated states of Norway and Switzerland). However, my experiences in Phase 1 suggested that where there were particularly acute conditions related to EU membership, any discussions about ‘feeling European’ would be dominated by these conditions. In the 2014 context, I decided to exclude Greece, where the post 2008 bailouts to the economy were creating considerable concern and debate, and the UK, where there was in 2014 a real prospect of a referendum on continuing membership of the EU, generating much heat. By mid 2015 this was being planned (but all my fieldwork was completed before the referendum took place). In the context of the relationship between the Republic of Ireland and the UK province of Northern Ireland, I also thought it important that, in any study of political identity on the island, it should be made clear that the research was being conducted on both sides of the border. Thus Greece, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom were not included in this phase, with the intention to return to them in less contentious times.
Phase 2 thus encompassed Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Fieldwork was carried out between September 2014 and February 2016.
2014 2015 2016
In total in phase 2 I visited 55 different locations, talking with 1,024 young people from 85 different schools and colleges, in 165 groups.
A second book – Finding Political Identities: Young people in a changing Europe was published in 2019 (Palgrave Macmillan): this incorporated many elements of Phase 1, as well as all the data from phase 2.
I have been planning to continue this study into other parts of Europe, but the COVI-19 pandemic has caused some disruptions, and there is some uncertainty about the immediate future. Changes and developments will be reported here. There are three potential areas of interest.
The states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia Moldova and Ukraine were part of a programme I developed with a group of civil society associations from these countries. In October 2019 I spoke at a meeting of the East European Network for Citizenship Education (EENCE) at their conference in Batumi, Georgia. Plans were made for a study of young people in these states to start in September 2020: these are now on hold. An investigation is being made into the possibility of on-line discussions. These countries are of particular interests because of the complex constructions of citizenship and nationality that were developed in the USSR, of which these six countries were once a part.
While I visited some Balkan states in Phase 1, there remains Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia to investigate (and probably some updating on Bulgaria, Croatia and Macedonia). This area is importnat to study, because of the complex and fractured identities that followed the break up of Yugoslavia, and earliet than that, the break up of the Ottoman Empire. It is unlikely that I'll be able to tackle this area without collaborating with other academics, particularly to collect the empirical data that would be needed.
The UK and the Republic of Northern Ireland remain to be covered, and the political focus is still on the Brexit arrangements. Although they are currently at the end of the list, I don’t imagine the situation will be calmer till at least 2022/3. But by then it may be possible to make a detailed study.
Political Identities of Young Europeans: a summary of the findings
Young Identities in the Baltic (January 2011)
Young Identities in Turkey (June 2011)
Young Identities in Poland, the Czech republic, Slovakia and Poland ( 26 October 2011)
Young Identities in Cyprus and Iceland (12 January 2012)
Changing constructions of identities by young people in Romania (20 June 2012)
Changing constructions of identities by young people in Bulgaria (11 December 2012)
Changing constructions of identities by young people in Slovenia (23 May 2013)
Balkan and European - Young people’s constructions of identities in Croatia (23 July 2013)
Macedonian Young People: Constructing Identities in a Contested Country (25 March 2014)
Kaleidoscopic Identities: Young people constructing identities in the New Europe (2 June 2014)
Phase 2: Scandinavia
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